Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Role of Gender

The Role of Gender Free Online Research Papers Whom do you see when you look in the mirror? I do not know about you , but I am sure about myself. I am a woman in my body and soul. I never thought deeply about gender role before writing this essay. After reading few essays, I am sure,we need harmony in our lives which is a balance of all elements that present us as a whole. Once the individual is liberated from a confined gender role , he gets more freedom to understand who he is and chooses whom who he wants to be. This freedom of his choice ultimately leads him to a harmonious and a balanced life. Since harmony leads to happiness , then society starts to consist of satisfied individuals, instead of disturbed ones. That is why both male and female look for a partner that can bring this harmony into their relationship. In Becoming Members of Society : Learning the Social Meaning of Gender , Aaron H. Devor explains differences between gender and sexuality. Gender is typically based on anatomical differences between men and women, but does not necessarily match with them. Gender role â€Å" may be changed without changes being made to biological sex characteristics† . Gender is socially and culturally determined; it is not biologically determined. Gender roles can influence all kinds of behavior, such as choice of clothing, choice of work and personal relationships; for example , parental roles. Everyone since childhood absorbs â€Å"the generalized standards of society into their personal concept of what is correct behavior† . â€Å"History shows us how completely our gender derives from cultural myths about what is proper for men and women to think , enjoy , and do.† Howe ver, during childhood and adolescence, gender identities which differ from the norm are often the cause of ridicule, mockery , and banishment, which often results in psychological problems. Some are able to camouflage their differences, but others cannot. Even though people have become more tolerant, there are still some who are not willing to except things out of the norm which is why the society has not gained the balance it needs. I agree with Aaron H. Devor who writes : â€Å"As children, and later adults,learn the rules of membership in society, they come to see themselves in terms they have learned from the people around them.† I am not an exception from them who â€Å" learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and gender identity at the same time that they learn what gender behaviors are appropriate for them† . I grew up in the USSR where article 35 of the Soviet Constitution clearly stated that women and men have equal rights and possess equal access to education and training, employment, promotions, and remuneration and to participation in social, political, and cultural activity. My mother and I , as most married women in the Soviet Union , worked outside the home in addition to fulfilling their roles of wife, mother, and homemaker. As in other industrialize d countries, Soviet women had difficulty adjusting the demands of career and home. At home, Soviet women spent more than twice as much time on housework as men. Finally, the idea of Clara Zetkin and Eleanor Marx who â€Å" were against the demonization of men and supported a proletarian revolution that would overcome as many male-female inequalities as possible† has led to women to exhibit masculine characteristics , to the ideal of the Soviet woman who will stop a galloping stallion, will enter a burning house(N.A.Nekrasov from poem â€Å"Russian Women†).Women became courageous, aggressive, heroic, bold who did not need protection and helping from men. Is it bad or good? Maybe for society , it is good because educated and strong women would be useful for its economy. For the individuals, I do not know. However, I miss Bunin’s , Pushkin’s, Tolstoiâ €™s woman who is feminina, affectionate, and tender. So, for the most part, Soviet women lost the many qualities of being feminine. â€Å" The clusters of social definitions to identify persons by gender are collectively known as femininity and masculinity† . What are femininity and masculinity ? Basically, it is not a difficult question for anyone because we are adults who have our own meaning about these words. According to Devor , every gender role has his own characteristics : â€Å" masculinity usually characterized by dominance and aggression, and femininity by passivity and submissionâ€Å"; â€Å"masculine thirst for power, which can, but need not, lead to aggression, and the feminine quest for harmony and communal well-being, which can, but need not , result in passivity and dependence.† . I think that this statement gives us a point of view about our natural roots which we all have. Devor writes that the dominant gender schema in North American society â€Å" leads us to believe that female and male behaviors are the result of socially directed hormonal instructions which specify that females will want to have children and will therefore find themselves relatively helpless and dependent on males for support and protection† . What does the dominant gender schema mean ? This cultural schema is a matrix of rules which govern the organization of sex, gender, and sexuality. In outline, those rules teach members of their societies to believe that sex, gender, and sexuality interact in a dichotomized and biologically deterministic fashion. Thus, according to the dictates of the dominant gender schema, all persons can belong to one, and only one, sex throughout their entire lifetimes, and all persons automatically and permanently belong to their corresponding genders. (from Devor,H. (1997).†Female Gender Dysphoria : Personal Problem or Social Problem?†) If liberation in Western society gives all people freedom for making choice of their gender role, how do these rules work? How is it possible to choose between both gender roles when the individual is multifarious? â€Å" It is possible to point to multitudinous exceptions to, and variations on, these themes† . For example, nowadays we have a lot of new words which characterize uncounted gender roles and whose definitions I do not understand well. There are Transgender, Transsexual, Crossdresser, Gender Queer, Intersex, Two Spirit, , Kathoey, Drag King, Drag Queen, Queer, Lesbian, Gay, Straight, Butch, Femme, Faerie, Homosexual, Bisexual, Heterosexual . When Devor uses the term gender, he refers to persons social statuses as women, girls, men, boys, or variously transgendered. In contemporary North American societies, genders are generally assumed to be direct social demonstration of persons sexes. However, when Devor uses the term gender, he does not share that assumption. Rather, when Devor calls people women, men or transgendered , he assumes only that they demonstrate enough femininity or masculinity to make them recognizable as women, men or transgendered. Devor does not assume anything about their sexes without further information (from How Many Sexes? How Many Genders? When Two Are Not Enough, 3rd Western Canadian Sexual Health Conference, Edmonton, Alta, May, 1998.). So, everyone in Western society has to choose his own gender role because we have many options to choose from in order to retain balance in ourselves. Now we have many versions of gender role, but this variability is not understandable for me because I grew up and matured in society where the individual had to choose only one from two gender roles : â€Å" All persons are either male or female. All males are first boys and then men; all females are first girls and then women† . But I understand other people and I am sure that every individual should have his own choice of his own gender role. Our world does not have only white and black colors, it is multicolored. Everyone should find harmony and balance inside himself because it is one of the part of our happiness. And I am sure that after he will find his own life’s partner , who will complete him as whole. So, it is good for the individual. I am sure, if the every person , who has found his own balance , becomes more pol ite and patient to others’ choices , our society will become more harmonious. So, it is good for society. Certainly, gender revolution gives us liberation from binary and permanent vision of gender. For example woman’s revolution leads to â€Å"equality between the sexes†¦.But we need to recognize that there have been both gains and losses in this revolution† . I think, this equality leads to wipe off the definition of gender at all. I very often hear a word, that is new to me- unisex which means gender-blind. But I do not like that. I like to be a Woman who needs a Man . For me, dependence on a man is not a bad thing because it is not submission or worship. I like to evoke the romantic feeling and to be ladylike in mans’ eyes . I do not want to be â€Å" strong and aggressive- like men† . I think that the woman’s power is in her weakness. But it is my choice . Certainly, women’s revolution brings bear on s ociety and , as a result ,† a woman today has the choice of every occupation that used to be reserved for men , plus traditional women’s role.† It is not too bad. On one hand, an educated and strong woman should be useful for society, its progress and evolution. But on the other hand, now feminists go too far and as a result I see men’s discrimination. I know some examples: women may get marred at younger ages than men in Ukraine and some U.S. states ;men pay higher premiums for auto, health, life and disability insurance. I think that for balance in our life we need equal opposing forces as a result after the fight at both antipodes. If a woman chooses masculinity, what kind of partner will give her a balanced relationship? What kind of a partner completes a strong and a manlike woman for balance? Someone gives an ansver : we need to go back to nature . Basically, I agree with Mansfield completely , when I read his words: â€Å"For the most part, men will always have more manliness than women have, and it is up to both sexes to fashion this fact into something good† . But I think, we should find harmony and balance in our life, but first everyone should find his own equanimity and understand himself. Then , when you look in the mirror , you will know who you are. References 1.Alexes de Tocqueville,† How the Americans Understand the Equality of the Sexes â€Å". From Colombo ,G., Cullen, R., Lisie B.Rereading America. Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Bedford/St. Martin’s , Boston, New York. Seven Edition.2007, p. 376-380. 2.Bebel, August, Woman under Socialism (University Press of the Pacific, 2004), 3.Colombo ,G., Cullen, R., Lisie B.Rereading America. Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Bedford/St. Martin’s , Boston, New York. Seven Edition.2007. 4.Devor , Aaron H.,† Becoming Members of Society: Learning the Social Meanings of Gender.† From Gender Blending : Confronting the Limits of Duality by Holly 5.Devor. Copyringht 1998 by Indiana University Press. Mansfield, Harvey. â€Å" The Manliness of Men.† From Manliness by Mansfield, Harvey .2003 Originally published in The American Enterprise,2003. Research Papers on The Role of GenderInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementResearch Process Part One19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andMind TravelEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenCapital Punishment

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Steve Jobs as one of the most influential business leaders of our time Term Paper

Steve Jobs as one of the most influential business leaders of our time - Term Paper Example Sadly for Steve, he never knew the love of his parents who later on decided to get married and then have another child, a daughter they named Mona. The unwanted baby was adopted by Clara and Paul Jobs who by profession were an accountant and coast guard veteran respectively. They lived in the Mountain View area of Silicone Valley where as a boy, Steve was influenced by his fathers affinity for all things electronic. He would spend many a day and hours learning how to take electronic things apart and put them back together from his father. It was this activity that kick-started Steve's lifelong love affair with all things electronic and technical. Always a man ahead of his time, a young Steven had problems adjusting to regular academic life. He was known as a prankster at school who needed to be coaxed into completing his tasks. Though unfocused and unwilling to sit down and be taught, the principal of his school and his teachers agreed that his boredom and restlessness came from the fact that his intellectual ability was not challenged at his current academic level. The boy tested with a high school learning curve as early as the 4th grade but his parents refused to let the school accelerate him to the proper academic level as dictated by his intellectual quotient exams. By 1971, Steve found himself enrolled at Homestead High School where he would go on to meet Apple co-founder and future business partner Steve Wozniak. Wozniak was, at the time, attending the University of Michigan. Both men had an affinity for computers and other common interests, including an independent mind attitude about how things should be done in the world. It was also this close affinity that would lead to their parting of their business ways later on in their lives. (â€Å"Steve Jobs†) Although Steve enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, his lack of direction in life led hi to drop out after only 6 months. He would then spend 18 months in creative classes where he would develop a keen interest in calligraphy, which became one of the most notable aspects of Apple Computers later on. In 1974, Steve tried his hand at working for a computer software company and found himself employed at Atari. But even this exposure to the business side of computers left Steve aimless. He spent a period of time trying to find spiritual fulfillment in India along with his use of psychedelic drugs. This was the time when the aimless boy began to find himself and develop into an innovative thinker, far ahead of his time. By 1976 he had convinced Wozniack to team up with him so they could establish Apple Computers with its head office located in his parent's garage. Steve Job's vision at this time was to create a personal computer far different from the mainframes that offices were using this era. His was going to be small enough to fit in a corner in the home and be easy enough for even a child to use. With Wozniack's help, the two men created the first personal computer for home use. Their first Apple computer was sold for $666.66 each. It was from that sale that the home office began to grow to eventually become the juggernaut computer software and hardware leader that it has now become. But the Apple computer as Steve Wozniack had put it together was far from perfect. Jobs knew that there was room for improvement. He just could not put his finger on what that improvement needed to be.

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

There is no such thing as a neutral question. Evaluate this statement Essay - 3

There is no such thing as a neutral question. Evaluate this statement with reference to two areas of knowledge - Essay Example For instance, â€Å"Why do you think he is leaving the company?† This is apparently a neutral question since the best answer is obviously known to the person who is leaving the company. The questioner’s interest is superficial or mere curiosity or else the question would have been placed with the person concerned. In the most elementary form, neutral questions are those which are asked by innocent children who express their curiosity over anything they see or hear. Questions like â€Å"From where does babies come?† are common neutral questions since the children who frame these questions do not have any pre-conceived notions and can be satisfied by any random answer. In such cases, the questioner, i.e. the children have no inherent interest in the questions other than curiosity. Since, as already explained, in a case of a neutral question there is no apparent interest in the mind of the questioner therefore such questions are generally unemotional and open. However, this paper is concerned with the statement that there is no such thing as a neutral question. In the sociological perspective, the weight of a question is determined by the social context, i.e. answers can vary depending on whom the question is targeted. Therefore, â€Å"a sociologist who does not subject his own questioning to sociological questioning will be incapable of making a truly neutral sociological analysis of the answer it receives† (Bourdieu, 41). In the realm of science, knowledge is based on real questions with concrete and experimentally proven answers. A question cannot be neutral since the questioner expects a pre-conceived answer, i.e. a hypothesis based on which his future work will be constructed. The most critical aspect of scientific knowledge is that a scientist can ask a question of whys and hows for the reason that he will be seeking an explanation for his question. Now, the question remains whether in science it is

Friday, January 31, 2020

Dream Interpretation (Jung vs. Freud) Essay Example for Free

Dream Interpretation (Jung vs. Freud) Essay There is indeed a point where Freud and Jung would agree and disagree as to the interpretation of the particular dream. For Freud dreams is a conscious expression of our fantasies or wishes that is not available when one is awake. It means that for Freud, dreams are meaningful. On the other hand, Jung thinks the reverse of what Freud believed. He considers dreams as expression of the unconscious psychic process. However, obviously they both believed that the images in dreams have a meaning and values of its own for the dreamer. For Freud, the dreamer images are perhaps representing the dreamer’s early childhood wishes or those that one longs for long times but have never have it. Thus, he sees it as a satisfaction of desires. But for Jung, dreams are simply a natural manifestation of the unconscious, which means that it is just natural for any one to dream suggesting that it is possible also to see the image that one regularly is exposed to. In the given dream, both Freud and Jung would agree that dream has a meaning of its own. Freud might agree that most of the images in the dream could be interpreted simply as product of natural manifestation of the unconscious since they are all imaginative except of the image of his mother and the dreamer’s longing for the mother’s warmth. The point of agreement was that the nature of the dream could be interpreted as both a mere product of the unconscious psychic processes of Jung and it can also be interpreted as satisfaction of desires in view of the longing for the mother’s warmness amidst the coldness the dreamer felt. However, they would certainly disagree in the interpretation of its meaning. Jung will certainly interpret this dream simply as natural manifestation of the unconscious in view of the images which are mere fantasies. The image of the mother could just be part of the natural psychic process and nothing more. But Freud will interpret it as a symbol of longings for relationship, perhaps for family which is not accessible in the real life.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Death Penalty :: essays research papers fc

Death Penalty In 1972, the Supreme Court declared that under then existing laws "the imposition and carrying out of the death penalty ... constitutes cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments." The majority of the Court concentrated its objections on the way death-penalty laws had been applied, finding the result so "harsh and freakish" as to be constitutionally unacceptable. In 1976 more than 600 people had been sentenced to death under new capital-punishment statutes that provided guidance for the jury's sentencing decision. These statutes typically require a two-stage trial procedure, in which the jury first determines guilt or innocence and then chooses imprisonment or death in the light of aggravating or relieve circumstances. Executions proceeded throughout 1977 and in the early 1990s nearly 3000 people were sentenced to that death penalty and more then 180 had been executed. The death penalty does not arise from misplaced sympathy for convicted murderers. Murder demonstrates a lack of respect for human life. For this very reason, murder is despicable, and any policy of state-authorized killings is immoral. The death penalty could also be a good thing. If crazy people out there realize what the high consequences are for killing someone they may think twice before acting on hurting someone. Most people don't know which side to go on when it comes to the death penalty. Of course if it has to do with your family or close friends you will have no question about whether or not you should spare someones life that didn't spare your family member or close friends. People should suffer the way they made their victims suffer to see what it feels like to know they're going to die. To feel the pain the victim went through the moment they acted on their rage of having to hurt someone. Capital punishment does not stop crime, and the death penalty is uncivilized in theory and unfair. I do not think it is right no matter what the person did to sentence them to death.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Customer Satisfaction Essay

Filipino’s have been given a chance to finally choose groceries business and minimart across the country. One of the pioneer groceries in town is the Consumers Minimart Inc. formerly named Caragan. Ever since Consumers Minimart Inc. experienced a lot of competitors on their times, minimart is still existing and alive.At this time many establishments exist like CSI, Royal Mall, Save More, but the Consumers Minimart Inc. is still having a profit and their loyal customers were always remained.Bayambang is one of the town with the largest number of barangays in Pangasinan, a largest place to establish a business. Business opportunity is increasing like mini grocery market, malls, fast food chains, banks, water refilling station and other small and big enterprises. This business establishment where very profitable and have impact to the customers especially here, is the groceries stores because customer or people can get or buy their daily needs into this kind of business, and one of that business is the Consumers Minimart Inc.Consumers Minimart Inc. is owned and manage by Jovita De Leon. It was established last March 18, 2010. They established their business in Bayambang because this place is very promising town, has 77 barangays and there is a lot of nearby town, and prospect customers such as Bautista, Alcala, Urbiztondo, and Malasiqui.Caragan was became Consumers Minimart Inc. because of being long term industry and the owners were became stockholders. The standard monthly income has been reach also by the said business. The formerly competitors were Lita’s grocery, old Royal mall stores and some local stores located at the market of Bayambang.But there are things that this business needs to improve, including the satisfaction of the customers. Consumers Minimart Inc. need additional effort in making their service much better including in queueing system or waiting time, delivery service, visual merchandising and physical set-up, and add to the strategies of the business. This will be used as strategy to makes their customer more satisfy in their service, it will add to have more customers and become more profitable, more improvement in their services. Consumers Minimart Inc. also need to improve their marketing strategy because it is a part of over all plan of the said business by establishing another branch in the province of Pangasinan for expansion for them to become more popular in terms of selling diffirent kinds of product. According to Peng Shao and Zeliang Sun (2012), Groceries today have to deal with the more dynamic and competitive environments than before. The frequent mergers and acquisitions among the groceries suppliers and retailers made industry structure strongly concentrated and competitive.And the limited retail stores are being increasingly standardized and homogenized. Facing the Bayambang market which only has 96,609 population, the three major competitors grocery, CSI, Savemore and Royal Mall need to differentiate themselves. Thus maintaining long-term relationship with customers is important, in order to keep their good organizational performance and profits. Identifying the key attributes influencing customer satisfaction during customers’ purchasing in their stores is critical. Groceries need to explore their resources and internal capabilities, so that they can make proper strategies to remain competitive. Unique attributes and sub-attributes are the important resources and internal capabilities of each grocer, which can help grocer to differentiate themselves from its competitors, and maximize the level of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction means that customer needs are fulfilled when doing the purchases. So the groceries must understand what the customers want and provide customers with what they need. A large number of studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between organization performance and customer satisfaction. Keeping long-term customer satisfaction is seen as a critical success factor for grocery retailers, because the competition in the groceries industry is strong and margins are becoming limited. There is a straight forward and simple link between customer satisfaction and profits. Retailers used to shape customers’ shopping habit, without listening much to consumers’ needs and desires. However, as the industry has been changing, customers change their shopping behavior. For example, the proximity between home and stores become less concerned, so retailers should adapt to new change of customers’ shopping behavior. Retailers must concern about the attributes, including quality of product, assortment, customer attention, additional service, store atmosphere, store location and price and discount, so that they can shorten the customers’ perception gap. In the future, the company will have applied its best practices especially to the customer satisfaction in their service not only in the province, but also in the entire Philippines. These Best Practices will not only consist of the most efficient systems, but also consider human elements such as local knowledge and relationship building which are equally essential in attaining great satisfaction. Statement of the problemThis study focused on the extent of customer satisfaction of Consumers Minimart Inc. located in Bayambang, Pangasinan. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of customers in terms of : a) Types of customers ; and b) Average purchased per transaction 2. What is the extent of customer satisfaction in terms of : a) Queueing system or Waiting timec) Visual merchandising b) Delivery systemd) Physical set-up 3. What are the problems encountered by the customer in terms of: a) Availability of product b) Parking area c) Sanitation d) Ventilation e) Services Accuracy f) Facilities g) Physical set-up h) Distribution i) Inventory j) Pricing Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study determined the extent of customers satisfaction of Consumers Minimart Inc. in the Municipality of Bayambang. The respondents of this study have the total of 100 respondents in a random basis like owners of sari-sari store or retailers, and end users who purchased in the Consumers Minimart Inc., regarding in their types of customers and average purchased per transaction, queueing system or waiting time, delivering system, visual merchandising, physical set-up, availability of product, parking area, sanitation, ventalition, services accuracy, pricin, inventory, distribution and facilities. Significance of the Study The researchers believed that the result of this study would benefit the following. The Manager. This study will enhance competence in the management and operation of the business and will provide with additional knowledge on how to improve business and to get customers satisfaction and loyalty. The Customers. The result of this study will serve as the source of affordable and easy buying decision. They would also be informed and be guided about the different services and existing prices that the business render to the public which the people will appreciate. The Government. This study will bring about additional income to the local government in the form of taxes and they will be provided with some needed basis to come up with rules and regulations to prevent cheating on the suggested retail price. The Future Entrepreneurs. This study will serve as a guide to those future entrepreneurs who wants to establish this kind of business. Definition of Terms To facilitate understanding of this study, the following terms were defined operationally. Consumers Minimart Inc. It is the name of the mini grocery business in the Municipality of Bayambang, that we are studying in our research. Satisfaction. Is an attitude of a person of being happy of the products and services offer. Suppliers. Is a person, company or organization that sells or supplies something such as goods or equipments to business. Customers. They are the retailers and end-users who consumed or use the products and services. Product. Something that is made or created by the manufacturer or supplier. It is offered to customers. Services. A product of human activity meant to satisfy a human need but not constituting item of goods. Queueing System. The queuing discipline describes the order in which arrivals are serviced. Visual Merchandising. Is a form of store presentation of all forms of advertising and marketing. Physical Set-up. Is a form of displaying the products. Delivering System. process for conveying a product or service to a customer. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter present a review of professional literature and related studies relevant to the present study. This literature and studies have given the researchers more information and clearer view of the problem in this study. Those that are relevant to this research are presented in the following discussion. RELATED LITERATURE This section presents the both foreign and local related literature relevant to the study. This relevance is shown by the proponents in order to give more reason and understanding of the proposition. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction provides a leading indicator of consumer purchase intentions and loyalty. Customer satisfaction data are among the most frequently collected indicators of market perceptions. Organizations need to retain existing customers while targeting non-customers. Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual manifestation of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and product/service to product/service. The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other products against which the customer can compare the organization’s products. In retailing, consumers typically patronize multiple outlets. Thus, an important issue is why consumers vary in how they divide their purchases across outlets and how outlets can get a greater share of consumer expenditures. Two potential avenues for increasing customer share are to raise customer satisfaction, and increase repeat purchase through loyalty cards. This study examines the effects of customer satisfaction and loyalty cards as well as consumer characteristics on customer share spent on the primary grocery store. The findings suggest that customer satisfaction has a positive, albeit modest, effect on share while consumer economic shopping orientation has a negative direct effect on share. The economic orientation of shoppers, their felt importance of a personal relationship with store personnel, and the level of their aggregate purchase volume moderate the effect of satisfaction on customer share. Finally, the results provide mixed support for the impact of loyalty cards on customer behavior. Customer Satisfaction in Queuing Systems Companies have to increase their customers’ satisfaction to keep their competitiveness. In services, waiting has great impact on service level and customer satisfaction. Consequently, in time-based competition, one of the main objectives of service companies is to minimize customer waiting. Waiting can be defined in several ways; however, the ultimate management objective should be the maximization of customer satisfaction. The paper shows how customer satisfaction can be approximated with utility functions and establishes a theoretical background for utility transformation of waiting time. The case study of the checkout system of a real do-it-yourself superstore is used to illustrate the application of the suggested method. The results show that utility related objective function may justify queuing system changes even if the average waiting time does not improve. Elements of Queueing Systems Population of Customers can be considered either limited (closed systems) or unlimited (open systems). Unlimited population represents a theoretical model of systems with a large number of possible customers (a bank on a busy street, a motorway petrol station). Example of a limited population may be a number of processes to be run (served) by a computer or a certain number of machines to be repaired by a service man. It is necessary to take the term â€Å"customer† very generally. Customers may be people, machines of various nature, computer processes, telephone calls, etc. Arrival defines the way customers enter the system. Mostly the arrivals are random with random intervals between two adjacent arrivals. Typically the arrival is described by a random distribution of intervals also called Arrival Pattern. Queue represents a certain number of customers waiting for service (of course the queue may be empty). Typically the customer being served is considered not to be in the queue. Sometimes the customers form a queue literally (people waiting in a line for a bank teller). Sometimes the queue is an abstraction (planes waiting for a runway to land). There are two important properties of a queue: Maximum Size and Queuing Discipline. Maximum Queue Size (also called System capacity) is the maximum number of customers that may wait in the queue (plus the one(s) being served). Queue is always limited, but some theoretical models assume an unlimited queue length. If the queue length is limited, some customers are forced to renounce without being served. Queuing Discipline represents the way the queue is organised (rules of inserting and removing customers to/from the queue). There are these ways: 1) FIFO (First In First Out) also called FCFS (First Come First Serve) – orderly queue; 2) LIFO (Last In First Out) also called LCFS (Last Come First Serve) – stack; 3) SIRO (Serve In Random Order); 4) Priority Queue, that may be viewed as a number of queues for various priorities; and 5) Many other more complex queuing methods that typically change the customer’s position in the queue according to the time spent already in the queue, expected service duration, and/or priority. These methods are typical for computer multi-access systems. Most quantitative parameters (like average queue length, average time spent in the system) do not depend on the queuing discipline. That’s why most models either do not take the queuing discipline into account at all or assume the normal FIFO ( First In First Out) queue. In fact the only parameter that depends on the queuing discipline is the variance (or standard deviation) of the waiting time. There is this important rule (that may be used for example to verify results of a simulation experiment). The two extreme values of the waiting time variance are for the FIFO (First In First Out) queue (minimum) and the LIFO (Last In First Out) queue (maximum). Theoretical models (without priorities) assume only one queue. This is not considered as a limiting factor because practical systems with more queues (bank with several tellers with separate queues) may be viewed as a system with one queue, because the customers always select the shortest queue. Of course, it is assumed that the customers leave after being served. Systems with more queues (and more servers) where the customers may be served more times are called Queuing Networks. Service represents some activity that takes time and that the customers are waiting for. Again take it very generally. It may be a real service carried on persons or machines, but it may be a CPU time slice, connection created for a telephone call, be ing shot down for an enemy plane, etc. Typically a service takes random time. Theoretical models are based on random distribution of service duration also called Service Pattern. Another important parameter is the number of servers. Systems with one server only are called Single Channel Systems, systems with more servers are called Multi Channel Systems. Output represents the way customers leave the system. Output is mostly ignored by theoretical models, but sometimes the customers leaving the server enter the queue again (â€Å"round robin† time-sharing systems). Queuing Theory is a collection of mathematical models of various queuing systems that take as inputs parameters of the above elements and that provide quantitative parameters describing the system performance. Because of random nature of the processes involved the queuing theory is rather demanding and all models are based on very strong assumptions (not always satisfied in practice). Many systems (especially queuing networks) are not soluble at all, so the only technique that may be applied is simulation. Nevertheless queuing systems are practically very important because of the typical trade-off between the various costs of providing service and the costs associated with waiting for the service (or leaving the system without being served). High quality fast service is expensive, but costs caused by customers waiting in the queue are minimum. On the other hand long queues may cost a lot because customers (machines e.g.) do not work while waiting in the queue or customers leave because of long queues. So a typical problem is to find an optimum system configuration (e.g. the optimum number of servers). The solution may be found by applying queuing theory or by simulation.

Customer Satisfaction Essay

Filipino’s have been given a chance to finally choose groceries business and minimart across the country. One of the pioneer groceries in town is the Consumers Minimart Inc. formerly named Caragan. Ever since Consumers Minimart Inc. experienced a lot of competitors on their times, minimart is still existing and alive.At this time many establishments exist like CSI, Royal Mall, Save More, but the Consumers Minimart Inc. is still having a profit and their loyal customers were always remained.Bayambang is one of the town with the largest number of barangays in Pangasinan, a largest place to establish a business. Business opportunity is increasing like mini grocery market, malls, fast food chains, banks, water refilling station and other small and big enterprises. This business establishment where very profitable and have impact to the customers especially here, is the groceries stores because customer or people can get or buy their daily needs into this kind of business, and one of that business is the Consumers Minimart Inc.Consumers Minimart Inc. is owned and manage by Jovita De Leon. It was established last March 18, 2010. They established their business in Bayambang because this place is very promising town, has 77 barangays and there is a lot of nearby town, and prospect customers such as Bautista, Alcala, Urbiztondo, and Malasiqui.Caragan was became Consumers Minimart Inc. because of being long term industry and the owners were became stockholders. The standard monthly income has been reach also by the said business. The formerly competitors were Lita’s grocery, old Royal mall stores and some local stores located at the market of Bayambang.But there are things that this business needs to improve, including the satisfaction of the customers. Consumers Minimart Inc. need additional effort in making their service much better including in queueing system or waiting time, delivery service, visual merchandising and physical set-up, and add to the strategies of the business. This will be used as strategy to makes their customer more satisfy in their service, it will add to have more customers and become more profitable, more improvement in their services. Consumers Minimart Inc. also need to improve their marketing strategy because it is a part of over all plan of the said business by establishing another branch in the province of Pangasinan for expansion for them to become more popular in terms of selling diffirent kinds of product. According to Peng Shao and Zeliang Sun (2012), Groceries today have to deal with the more dynamic and competitive environments than before. The frequent mergers and acquisitions among the groceries suppliers and retailers made industry structure strongly concentrated and competitive.And the limited retail stores are being increasingly standardized and homogenized. Facing the Bayambang market which only has 96,609 population, the three major competitors grocery, CSI, Savemore and Royal Mall need to differentiate themselves. Thus maintaining long-term relationship with customers is important, in order to keep their good organizational performance and profits. Identifying the key attributes influencing customer satisfaction during customers’ purchasing in their stores is critical. Groceries need to explore their resources and internal capabilities, so that they can make proper strategies to remain competitive. Unique attributes and sub-attributes are the important resources and internal capabilities of each grocer, which can help grocer to differentiate themselves from its competitors, and maximize the level of customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction means that customer needs are fulfilled when doing the purchases. So the groceries must understand what the customers want and provide customers with what they need. A large number of studies have demonstrated a positive relationship between organization performance and customer satisfaction. Keeping long-term customer satisfaction is seen as a critical success factor for grocery retailers, because the competition in the groceries industry is strong and margins are becoming limited. There is a straight forward and simple link between customer satisfaction and profits. Retailers used to shape customers’ shopping habit, without listening much to consumers’ needs and desires. However, as the industry has been changing, customers change their shopping behavior. For example, the proximity between home and stores become less concerned, so retailers should adapt to new change of customers’ shopping behavior. Retailers must concern about the attributes, including quality of product, assortment, customer attention, additional service, store atmosphere, store location and price and discount, so that they can shorten the customers’ perception gap. In the future, the company will have applied its best practices especially to the customer satisfaction in their service not only in the province, but also in the entire Philippines. These Best Practices will not only consist of the most efficient systems, but also consider human elements such as local knowledge and relationship building which are equally essential in attaining great satisfaction. Statement of the problemThis study focused on the extent of customer satisfaction of Consumers Minimart Inc. located in Bayambang, Pangasinan. Specifically, this study sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of customers in terms of : a) Types of customers ; and b) Average purchased per transaction 2. What is the extent of customer satisfaction in terms of : a) Queueing system or Waiting timec) Visual merchandising b) Delivery systemd) Physical set-up 3. What are the problems encountered by the customer in terms of: a) Availability of product b) Parking area c) Sanitation d) Ventilation e) Services Accuracy f) Facilities g) Physical set-up h) Distribution i) Inventory j) Pricing Scope and Delimitation of the Study This study determined the extent of customers satisfaction of Consumers Minimart Inc. in the Municipality of Bayambang. The respondents of this study have the total of 100 respondents in a random basis like owners of sari-sari store or retailers, and end users who purchased in the Consumers Minimart Inc., regarding in their types of customers and average purchased per transaction, queueing system or waiting time, delivering system, visual merchandising, physical set-up, availability of product, parking area, sanitation, ventalition, services accuracy, pricin, inventory, distribution and facilities. Significance of the Study The researchers believed that the result of this study would benefit the following. The Manager. This study will enhance competence in the management and operation of the business and will provide with additional knowledge on how to improve business and to get customers satisfaction and loyalty. The Customers. The result of this study will serve as the source of affordable and easy buying decision. They would also be informed and be guided about the different services and existing prices that the business render to the public which the people will appreciate. The Government. This study will bring about additional income to the local government in the form of taxes and they will be provided with some needed basis to come up with rules and regulations to prevent cheating on the suggested retail price. The Future Entrepreneurs. This study will serve as a guide to those future entrepreneurs who wants to establish this kind of business. Definition of Terms To facilitate understanding of this study, the following terms were defined operationally. Consumers Minimart Inc. It is the name of the mini grocery business in the Municipality of Bayambang, that we are studying in our research. Satisfaction. Is an attitude of a person of being happy of the products and services offer. Suppliers. Is a person, company or organization that sells or supplies something such as goods or equipments to business. Customers. They are the retailers and end-users who consumed or use the products and services. Product. Something that is made or created by the manufacturer or supplier. It is offered to customers. Services. A product of human activity meant to satisfy a human need but not constituting item of goods. Queueing System. The queuing discipline describes the order in which arrivals are serviced. Visual Merchandising. Is a form of store presentation of all forms of advertising and marketing. Physical Set-up. Is a form of displaying the products. Delivering System. process for conveying a product or service to a customer. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter present a review of professional literature and related studies relevant to the present study. This literature and studies have given the researchers more information and clearer view of the problem in this study. Those that are relevant to this research are presented in the following discussion. RELATED LITERATURE This section presents the both foreign and local related literature relevant to the study. This relevance is shown by the proponents in order to give more reason and understanding of the proposition. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction provides a leading indicator of consumer purchase intentions and loyalty. Customer satisfaction data are among the most frequently collected indicators of market perceptions. Organizations need to retain existing customers while targeting non-customers. Measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the marketplace. Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual manifestation of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and product/service to product/service. The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. The level of satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have and other products against which the customer can compare the organization’s products. In retailing, consumers typically patronize multiple outlets. Thus, an important issue is why consumers vary in how they divide their purchases across outlets and how outlets can get a greater share of consumer expenditures. Two potential avenues for increasing customer share are to raise customer satisfaction, and increase repeat purchase through loyalty cards. This study examines the effects of customer satisfaction and loyalty cards as well as consumer characteristics on customer share spent on the primary grocery store. The findings suggest that customer satisfaction has a positive, albeit modest, effect on share while consumer economic shopping orientation has a negative direct effect on share. The economic orientation of shoppers, their felt importance of a personal relationship with store personnel, and the level of their aggregate purchase volume moderate the effect of satisfaction on customer share. Finally, the results provide mixed support for the impact of loyalty cards on customer behavior. Customer Satisfaction in Queuing Systems Companies have to increase their customers’ satisfaction to keep their competitiveness. In services, waiting has great impact on service level and customer satisfaction. Consequently, in time-based competition, one of the main objectives of service companies is to minimize customer waiting. Waiting can be defined in several ways; however, the ultimate management objective should be the maximization of customer satisfaction. The paper shows how customer satisfaction can be approximated with utility functions and establishes a theoretical background for utility transformation of waiting time. The case study of the checkout system of a real do-it-yourself superstore is used to illustrate the application of the suggested method. The results show that utility related objective function may justify queuing system changes even if the average waiting time does not improve. Elements of Queueing Systems Population of Customers can be considered either limited (closed systems) or unlimited (open systems). Unlimited population represents a theoretical model of systems with a large number of possible customers (a bank on a busy street, a motorway petrol station). Example of a limited population may be a number of processes to be run (served) by a computer or a certain number of machines to be repaired by a service man. It is necessary to take the term â€Å"customer† very generally. Customers may be people, machines of various nature, computer processes, telephone calls, etc. Arrival defines the way customers enter the system. Mostly the arrivals are random with random intervals between two adjacent arrivals. Typically the arrival is described by a random distribution of intervals also called Arrival Pattern. Queue represents a certain number of customers waiting for service (of course the queue may be empty). Typically the customer being served is considered not to be in the queue. Sometimes the customers form a queue literally (people waiting in a line for a bank teller). Sometimes the queue is an abstraction (planes waiting for a runway to land). There are two important properties of a queue: Maximum Size and Queuing Discipline. Maximum Queue Size (also called System capacity) is the maximum number of customers that may wait in the queue (plus the one(s) being served). Queue is always limited, but some theoretical models assume an unlimited queue length. If the queue length is limited, some customers are forced to renounce without being served. Queuing Discipline represents the way the queue is organised (rules of inserting and removing customers to/from the queue). There are these ways: 1) FIFO (First In First Out) also called FCFS (First Come First Serve) – orderly queue; 2) LIFO (Last In First Out) also called LCFS (Last Come First Serve) – stack; 3) SIRO (Serve In Random Order); 4) Priority Queue, that may be viewed as a number of queues for various priorities; and 5) Many other more complex queuing methods that typically change the customer’s position in the queue according to the time spent already in the queue, expected service duration, and/or priority. These methods are typical for computer multi-access systems. Most quantitative parameters (like average queue length, average time spent in the system) do not depend on the queuing discipline. That’s why most models either do not take the queuing discipline into account at all or assume the normal FIFO ( First In First Out) queue. In fact the only parameter that depends on the queuing discipline is the variance (or standard deviation) of the waiting time. There is this important rule (that may be used for example to verify results of a simulation experiment). The two extreme values of the waiting time variance are for the FIFO (First In First Out) queue (minimum) and the LIFO (Last In First Out) queue (maximum). Theoretical models (without priorities) assume only one queue. This is not considered as a limiting factor because practical systems with more queues (bank with several tellers with separate queues) may be viewed as a system with one queue, because the customers always select the shortest queue. Of course, it is assumed that the customers leave after being served. Systems with more queues (and more servers) where the customers may be served more times are called Queuing Networks. Service represents some activity that takes time and that the customers are waiting for. Again take it very generally. It may be a real service carried on persons or machines, but it may be a CPU time slice, connection created for a telephone call, be ing shot down for an enemy plane, etc. Typically a service takes random time. Theoretical models are based on random distribution of service duration also called Service Pattern. Another important parameter is the number of servers. Systems with one server only are called Single Channel Systems, systems with more servers are called Multi Channel Systems. Output represents the way customers leave the system. Output is mostly ignored by theoretical models, but sometimes the customers leaving the server enter the queue again (â€Å"round robin† time-sharing systems). Queuing Theory is a collection of mathematical models of various queuing systems that take as inputs parameters of the above elements and that provide quantitative parameters describing the system performance. Because of random nature of the processes involved the queuing theory is rather demanding and all models are based on very strong assumptions (not always satisfied in practice). Many systems (especially queuing networks) are not soluble at all, so the only technique that may be applied is simulation. Nevertheless queuing systems are practically very important because of the typical trade-off between the various costs of providing service and the costs associated with waiting for the service (or leaving the system without being served). High quality fast service is expensive, but costs caused by customers waiting in the queue are minimum. On the other hand long queues may cost a lot because customers (machines e.g.) do not work while waiting in the queue or customers leave because of long queues. So a typical problem is to find an optimum system configuration (e.g. the optimum number of servers). The solution may be found by applying queuing theory or by simulation.